Monday, September 30, 2019
A magazine aims to attract a certain type of reader or a reader with a certain interest. Garden and Gun Magazine is about southern culture; our food, our manners, our hospitality, our hobbies, our way of life in general. I do not recommend Ã¢â¬Å"The Guiltless PleasureÃ¢â¬ for our magazine because it does not have the same purpose as the other food articles; Rick Braggs is misleading throughout the piece, and strays from the overall purpose of the article. When a reader turns to the food section of our magazine, they anticipate finding delicious recipes resembling those that southerners used to make and recipes that have been handed down through generations. Which is why Ã¢â¬Å"The Guiltless PleasureÃ¢â¬ would be out of place if published in our magazine. In Ã¢â¬Å" The Guiltless PleasureÃ¢â¬ , the closest thing to a recipe is instruction to add a dollop of mayonnaise to certain foods, like mashed potatoes, to make them taste better. Although Braggs does draw attention to the myth of all southerners liking mayonnaise, the article does not have enough information on how to incorporate this Ã¢â¬Å"southern condimentÃ¢â¬ into different foods. Braggs segregates people into two classifications, which are mayonnaise people and mustard people. He talks a great deal about mayonnaise people but talks about mustard people just as much and talks very highly of mustard people. Ã¢â¬Å"The Guiltless PleasureÃ¢â¬ was misleading in my opinion because Braggs seems to talk negatively about both mayonnaise and mustard people but mentions some pretty positive things about mustard people despite his unconditional love of mayonnaise. According to Braggs, mustard people do things like wear a certain type of athletic clothing, eat well, and have overall better health than the rest of us. He compares mayonnaise people by making them seem lazy with comments like, Ã¢â¬Å"We like L.L. Bean catalogs, too, but only because they offer most of their clothes in XXL, and we like their running shoes, which we wear to PopeyeÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the mailbox-if it is not too far.Ã¢â¬ He also mentions how mayonnaise people like to vacation in cities like New Orleans because of the local foods which are loaded down with calories. He makes mustard people seem genuinely happier and healthier than mayonnaise people despite the rest of his article that is trying to make mayonnaise seem like a condiment that makes everything taste tremendously better. This is misleading because if mayonnaise really is as wonderful as he makes it out to be, it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be associated with a negative, unhealthy lifestyle. Not only should this article not be published in Garden and Gun Magazine because it is misleading, but because it strays from topic on numerous occasions. Although the stories in the article about Braggs Ã¢â¬Å"dictator wifeÃ¢â¬ , the origins of mayonnaise, the mayonnaise isle description, and Elvis liking mayonnaise may be entertaining, they do not belong in Garden and Gun Magazine or in Ã¢â¬Å"The Guiltless PleasureÃ¢â¬ . They distract from his main point, which seems to be that mayonnaise is absolutely amazing. Braggs tells stories about his wife limiting the amount of mayonnaise he uses, the type of mayonnaise he uses, but allows him to eat however much mustard he pleases. He mentions other things in his article that distract from this point too; for example the long, drawn out comparison of mustard people and mayonnaise people. If he had incorporated more information about foods mayonnaise improves or elaborated on the ones he did mention and left out the Ã¢â¬Å"fluffÃ¢â¬ the article would be a wonderful addition to our magazine. In order for this article to go well in Garden and Gun it would have to have more useful tips on using mayonnaise to make foods taste better and less stories that are not directly linked to the main point of mayonnaise being a wonderful condiment. As well as having more positive things about mayonnaise and the people who like it throughout the article. Despite the drawn-out comparison between mayonnaise and mustard people, the contradicting statements, and the off-topic stories I found this article very entertaining. I would recommend this article as it is for a magazine focused solely on entertainment or as a blog on the Internet.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Emma is a well know novel written by Jane Austen, itÃ¢â¬â¢s based on the woman`s status at that time period and on the concept of the Augustan era. Jane Austen wrote Emma in the time period of when she grew up, It Took Jane Austen 15 Months to Write Emma. This Novel helps us understand the status of a woman at that time when women werenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to vote, wasn`t entitled to substandard education and were limited to housework. Jane Austen is trying to explain to us that in those days women had two choices to get married or to become a governess, and by understanding the way society was at the time, it will help us appreciate Emma. Jane Austen only wrote 6 novels and 5 of them are based on young women whose chances of marriage were very dependent on their status in society. However, Emma was different; she was her own woman who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see the need in having to marry. The Character of Emma Ã¢â¬Å"with an alacrity beyond the common impulse of a spiritÃ¢â¬ ¦ with the real good-will of a mind delighted with its own ideasÃ¢â¬ (Chapter 3, Page 15) was different from other women at that time, Jane Fairfax & Harriet Smith Play a big part in The noel, they are used manipulatively as clever devices to show that Emma`s ideas were not only based on reality but her own ideas that she decided herself. Jane Austen makes it clear to us from beginning of the novel that Emma is not a character that compiles with the flaws of her century. Emma is Strong-witted and can be very arrogant towards other people, she is also patronizing and presumptuous. She isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a typical woman of her status at her time as women`s lives were very quite controlled and restricted at the time of Jane Austen. The Novel Emma gives us the insight on Jane Austen`s Feelings and point of view on women living in that era. It Changes Emma from being a typical young woman of her time to her own woman who makes her own decisions and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t worried about the consequences. Although these flaws make Emma unique and independent and can be praised, they can also be criticized Ã¢â¬Å"Was one of the few people who could see faults in Emma Woodhouse, and the only one who ever told her of them, and tough this was not particularly agreeable to EmmaÃ¢â¬ (Page 5) Emma seems very strong-witted, confident and proud of herself and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to be criticized unlike most of the other woman of her time. Out of all Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s Heroines, Emma is the most flawed and frustrating but in the end is the most endearing. As a character Emma matures towards the end and realises the folly and misguidance of her actions towards other people. At the beginning of the novel Emma Likes To Think Of Herself as independent and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to marry this could be because she`s comfortable with her status in society. We are made to think that Emma is a selfish young woman who is proud of herself and feels no need to marry. Later on in the novel we begin to realize that Emma`s match-making and interfering is causing no good and Emma Realizes this too. She then comes to realize her feelings for Mr. Knightly and starts to see the possibility that she needs to marry. There`s a lot of irony in Emma`s beliefs as she is the centre of everyone`s attention and interferes in other peoples relationships so much that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize her feelings for Mr. Knightly. Mr. Knightly is the only person in the whole novel that criticizes Emma other characters donÃ¢â¬â¢t really talk much about Emma except chapter 5 were Mr. Knightly and Mrs. Weston Discuss Emma. Emma thinks of herself completely different what others think of her, this also makes the novel more ironic. Emma thinks so highly of herself she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any notice of what others might think this is a very cleaver device that Jane Austen uses. Emma and Harriet become friends so Emma tries to fins Harriet a husband that she thinks will be suitable. Emma doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any notice that Harriet if from a different class to her and looks for a husband for Harriet of her own class. Emma also carelessly starts a rumour about Jane Fairfax whilst flirting with Frank Churchill. However, Emma doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do this on purpose and towards the end of the play Jane Austen shows us that Emma learns from her mistakes. Emma has many weaknesses and one of them just as Mr. Knightly had predicted Ã¢â¬Å"She will never submit to anything requiring industry and patience and a subjection of the fancy to the understandingÃ¢â¬ (Volume 1, Chapter 5). Emma is the cleverest in her family and is idolized by a lot of Highbury, this may be why she is so confident and convinced that she`s always right. Emma always seems to see the need to reshape things to suit herself this shows that Emma`s imagination has too much impact on her actions. Jane Austen makes it clear to us that Emma has a lot of imagination and this causes a lot of problems. Mr. Knightly states that imagination is nonsense; this is ironic as it opposes Ã¢â¬Å"senseÃ¢â¬ against Ã¢â¬Å"imaginationÃ¢â¬ Jane Austen lets poetic justice take place in the novel towards the disclosure at the end, as this shows the procedure Emma needs to go through and the developments that need to be made in order to get the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect endingÃ¢â¬â¢. There were quite a few times in the novel when Jane Austen made Emma go through emotional and frustrating situations, which had been caused by herself, in these situations Emma, had to look back on her actions and be remorseful. Jane Austen shows us that the greatest threat to achieving happiness is ourselves. Towards the ending of the novel, there are quite a few examples when Emma has to me sorry for her actions. Mr. Knightly rebukes Emma for her bad-mannered conduct towards Miss Bates and Box Hill, He says, Ã¢â¬Å"I will tell you truths while I canÃ¢â¬ , she was Ã¢â¬Å"vexed beyond what could have been expressed,Ã¢â¬ and then she weeps. Ã¢â¬Å"Emma felt the tears running down her cheeks almost all the way home, without being at any trouble to check them, extraordinary as they wereÃ¢â¬ (Page 376)Because Emma is crying this shows that she is starting to realize her mistakes and that she is feeling pain. It is only when something bad happens when Emma reacts to her bad actions, and when she realizes that she may lose Mr. Knightly she changes Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦My blindness to what was going on, led me to act in a way that I must always be ashamed of, and I was very foolishly tempted to say and do many things which may well lay me open to unpleasant conjecturesÃ¢â¬ . This shows that Emma feels embarrassed and humiliated and realizes her faults and mistakes and tries to fix them. We begin to see that Emma is slowly changing from being strong-witted, proud of herself, patronizing and confident to a more compassionate and honest character. Jane Austen has Emma go on an emotional rollercoaster towards the ending to create the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect happinessÃ¢â¬â¢ through poetic justice. In the end Emma is rewarded with the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect happinessÃ¢â¬â¢ and not the punishment she is afraid to get. We admire Emma as a character because of her flaws at the beginning and how they were changing throughout the novel, towards the end of the play she realizes her faults and mistakes and tries to fix them and changes her ways. Towards the ending we begin to see the more compassionate and honest side of Emma that wants to help people rather than the patronizing and self absorbed Emma she was in the beginning. This helps us appreciate Emma and lets us see that she has learnt from her mistakes and that she is maturing. Emma isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a typical woman of her time and tha`s why we love her because of her imperfections and her mistakes and the way she is able to turn things around to get her Ã¢â¬Ëperfect happinessÃ¢â¬â¢ that she has being searching for.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The play Ã¢â¬â HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Choice sets in late 1880s the Victorian times. If you knew about how do things look like and how people act, you can tell there are lots of differences and things have changed between now and the past. In the past, most of the women were indeed conservative, you can tell that from their costumes. For example, they used to wear very tight, grow bumptious and narrow neck costumes which show that they had no freedom, sometimes they were not even allow to choose their own dresses. However, they were willing to give up their freedoms for beauty. On the other hand, they also emphasized their deportment. Nowadays, women have more freedom, they can wear whatever they want to, and they do not have to wear tight and narrow neck dresses. Furthermore, the marrying age in the old days is around early 20s, but these days the marrying age is between late 20s and early 30s. The play is set in Salford, Lancashire, and the north of England. Hobson is of middle class background but has been running his show shop set in Chapel St, successfully, for some year. HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s shop is quite big. It shows that he has the money to buy a better quality shop. The HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s family is well educated. Also, the trap door shows the social status. Hobson is a really selfish and immature man. He does not care about his daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ and he leaves all the works to Maggie and relies to her. He lets her to run the shop and the house, all he cares is when he should goes drinking. He usually goes out at night and stay over until the next morning he comes back for lunch and goes out again. Ã¢â¬Å"He can go on waiting.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows us that Hobson is an unpunctual man. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care how people feel, he cares about only himself. Also, he is extraordinarily lazy. He is so arrogant and he thinks he is better than everyone else. He hates lawyers because its wastes of money and they help people who are supposed to be send into jail. The author tells us that he hates lawyers so this gives us a clue that one of his daughter might marry a lawyer or start a relationship with a lawyer. Ã¢â¬Å"But IÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you this, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll none rule me.Ã¢â¬ This quote demonstrates us that Hobson has a very bossy characteristic. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re pretty, but youÃ¢â¬â¢re bumptious, and I hate bumptiousness like I hate a lawyer.Ã¢â¬ And Ã¢â¬Å"You can lie like a gasmeter.Ã¢â¬ These quotes tell us that Hobson does not care about his daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings; he says whatever he wants to say. Also, he never tries to choose Maggie a husband and he told Alice and Vickey that he is choosing their husband himself. HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s eldest daughter Ã¢â¬â Maggie, she is 30 and single because of the selfishness of Hobson, he would not let her to find a husband herself but he did not find her a husband. He wants to keep her in the shop to work for him; he does not want to take to responsibility to manage his shop. Hobson often laughs at MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s age as she has already passed the marrying age. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not here to let people go out without buying.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows that she is a strong and powerful woman and she is an intelligent business woman. Her character also shows that she is not afraid of her father. Maggie is also HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s favourite daughter. He thinks that Maggie is the most useful to him compare to Alice and Vickey. Maggie is well educated and behaves in a good manner which shows that she is a respectable woman. She takes good care of her sister and cares about them. However, she also cares about Will, but in a different way, this shows that she has feelings for him. As Maggie has a really strong personality, she might have a fight with Hobson later on. HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s second daughter Ã¢â¬â Alice, she is 23 and with Albert. She helps Maggie to cook and to clean the house but not the business. She despises people; she also often scorns Maggie and reminds her that she has passed the marrying age. This shows that she maybe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get on really well with Maggie. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Prosser didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come in to buy boots.Ã¢â¬ This quote tells us that Maggie has a special relationship with Mr. Prosser, and she assumed that Maggie knew it. HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s youngest daughter Ã¢â¬â Vickey, she is 21 and with Fred. She is a bit impatient and fidgety, she is the bad one in the family. If things are bad and negative to her, she gives bad comments and tries to make it bad. Vicky also despises people and full of herself. Ã¢â¬Å"Father, have you heard the new about out Maggie?Ã¢â¬ This quote shows that Vickey wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t being very nice to her sister, Maggie. As she knows that if Hobson knows about Will and Maggie, he will definitely stop them. To conclude, I think since the author provides enough clues for us, it prepares us really well for the next chapter. Therefore, this makes me really want to read on as I wanted to know what is going to happen next, and also makes me got really interested in this book.
Friday, September 27, 2019
European Economy and Political - Essay Example As Howe (2006) observes, this is quite possibly because irrespective of her downfall and the rise of New Labour, on both political and economic fronts Britain is still living the consequences of Thatcherism. Among these consequences is the outcome of her confrontation with Britain's Labour Unions which effectively culminated in the demise of the latter and contributed to the downfall of the former (Howe, 2006). Whether or not the severe curtailment of the powers of the labour unions were a positive or negative development, just as whether or not Thatcher was singularly responsible for the stated, are questions worthy of exploration. In investigating these questions, the essay shall argue that while Thatcher's politico-economic policies vis--vis trade and labour unions were fundamental to the reduction of their powers, they were not singularly responsible for the stated curtailment. In addition, when analysed from within the parameters of the government's intentions and its economic v ision, there appears to be no other viable option to the reduction of union powers. Whether or not Thatcher's political and economic policies were responsible for the reduction in the powers of Britain's unions is debatable. ... 4 Homeownership rose C. Macroeconomic figures validate Thatcher's union policies. VI. The question of whether or not positive macroeconomic performance indicators allow for an objective determination of whether there were any alternatives to these policies. A. Economic problem was largely linked to strikes. B. As a consequence of continued strike, once powerful industries were virtually destroyed. C. Strikes were at the heart of inflation D. Solution lay in limiting strikes. VII. The only realistic, workable and effective way the government could reduce strikes was by passing laws and policies which imposed a regulatory legal framework upon the very practice of striking. A. Wildcat strikes were outlawed B. Illegal to call strikes without ballots. C. Power to call strikes was severely limited. VIII. Conclusion: In the final analysis, the effectiveness of Thatcher's curtailment of union power must be affirmed. A. Strikes were remarkably reduced. B. Lost workdays were regained. C. Britain was on the road to economic recovery as a direct consequence of the limitations imposed upon union powers. Few political economic trends have been as controversial as has Thatcherism and hardly any British prime ministers possess as debatable a legacy as does Margaret Thatcher. Although ousted from power by he own Conservative Party close to two decades ago, Thatcherism and Thatcher's legacy remain as divisive a subject today as they were throughput the 1980s. As Howe (2006) observes, this is quite possibly because irrespective of her downfall and the rise of New Labour, on both political and economic fronts Britain is still living the consequences of Thatcherism. Among these consequences is the outcome of her confrontation with Britain's Labour Unions which effectively
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement on Crime and Criminal Justice - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that the workforce behind criminal justice is getting diverse in the American society. The social structure of the American society has a major impact on the relationships that exist between ethnicity, crime and race. The human rights movements and criminal justice system has portrayed the American society as one full of inequalities between economics, ethnicities and race. The main reasons for civil rights movements in America have been consistent poverty and minority myth associated with the poor. The criminal justice system has associated the crime rates with the poor societies in America. Mostly, the civil rights movement has been the root of issues on crime war. Civil rights movement in America has had an impact about the judgment of actions and magnitude of crimes. There has been the issue of crime war in the American society. Inequality is often associated with criminal activities. The differential association, social strains, cultur al conflict, routine activities and social disorganization are often associated with crime. The criminal justice system has often associated ethnic minorities and race to the poor with the highest rates of crime. In the 1880s the African Ã¢â¬âAmerican community was associated with almost all crimes. If an African-American man was found committing a crime, he was sentenced to jail with out a jury present. No African Ã¢â¬âAmerican could sit in the jury because they had no voting rights. Seats in the juries were for only those Americans who had voting rights. This meant that only the whites could seat on the jury because they were the only Americans with the voting rights. When an African-American was convicted of crime in the nineteenth and twentieth century, he could spend longer jail periods and do more work than the whites. In prisons, the African Ã¢â¬âAmerican convicts could be leased to employers who would in turn pay the state for their labor. Many of the whites in the nineteenth century were never convicted for extrajudicial killings and lynching they performed on the African-Americans. However, during the uprising of civil movements in the nineteenth century, the criminal justice system changed significantly. The black community formed the American Civil Rights Movement of 1955-1964 that fought for equality and end to racism. The civil rights Act of 1964 saw the seating of African Ã¢â¬âAmericans in the jury. Also the whites who committed crime were sentenced to jail depending on the magnitude of the crime. The civil rights movement in the American society was characterized by riots and disobedience. The civil rights movement used boycotts such as the bus boycott of Montgomery of 1956. The movement was also characterized by sit-ins aimed at ensuring the equality of all Americans in eyes of Justice. The civil rights movement had both positive and negative impact on the American society regarding crime. The civil rights movement has seen the improvement of American jails. The Congress, in response to the civil rights crusade enacted legislations that would eventually bring reforms within the American prisons. As a result, living standards within the American prisons have been improved and the prison system does not favor any citizen imprisoned. Stojkovic et al (363)notes that reforms in the prison department during the twentieth century was attributed to the civil rights movement .the changes were as a result of the civil society asking about the prison living conditions and the processes of jailing civilians. The civil rights movement has brought about major changes in criminal justice process and systems. The civil rights activists have often questioned whether the criminal justice system in is capable of restoring social order, maintain law and order and rehabilitate and control offenders with out discrimination. Innovations have been integrated in the criminal justice in the twentieth century due to challenges from the civil society. In 1967, the National
Strategic management - Essay Example n order for JetBlue Company to grow, the company should put new emphasis on the grand strategy for growth, operational excellence, and customer intimacy at the corporate level. It should also engage generic strategies of differentiation and overall low cost leadership at the functional level. Mainly, the strategy should include offering an amazing quality product and service that should be summarized under JetBlue experience, network expansion, low fares, and quest for low operating expenses and should invest in new and economical planes. JetBlue Company puts in place five core values to replace the formal mission statement. These values are safety, care, fun, integrity, and passion. The five values are more significant in that they are printed on every paper that JetBlue company issues. These values also provide a framework for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Adams insists that once a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values are framed, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture follows. The company looks forward to enhance the JetBlue experience so that it can differentiate itself from the competition from other companies with similar interests. For the JetBlue Company to continue to grow, it needs to formulate a new vision and mission statements. This is if the company is to remain true to being a low-cost carrier that endeavors to deliver on-time service with the most competitive airfares in the industry. It is the duty of any company to form a strategic management once it formulates a mission statement. This statement allows the firm to realize its potential while having minded what it wants to avoid as it grows successfully. JetBlue CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission has been to be renowned low cost-carrier and the company has been reluctant to change its vision and mission statement. For JetBlue Company to have a clear direction of where it is headed, the company should put together more than a ten-word sentence in order to convey the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. The values should be differentiated by making five core
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Global Matrix Design. Differentiation And Operations Management. ISO Certification - Assignment Example The Global Matrix Design is an organized structure where a new organizational structure is superimposed on an existing structure. Global Matrix Design offers an organization a chance to have a fluid organizational structure, and the firm will be able to adjust its operations to suit international needs. By superimposing the new structure on the existing one, the organization has to adjust the various aspects of the existing organizational structures. Once the organization thinks of going international, it will have to adhere to international standards in all its operations. For instance, the products of the organization will have to meet the international standards and the organization may need to be certified. Although not all international organizations have ISO standardization, getting this standardization will be important in that most of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business will come from customers who will need to be assured that the products of the organization are of international stan dards. As such, any organization that intends to operate in the international market will have to reengineer its operations and make sure that it has met both local and international standards (Gerlrad, 2009). The other area apart from this that the organization will need to restructure its standards is in the way it does its accounting and financial reporting. Once the organization decides to go international, it will have to satisfy the accounting and financial reporting standards of each of the countries it will be operating in. This means that the organization will have to adjust its financial reporting to make sure that it does not violate the local tax laws and requirements. This will call for the organization to change its management operations as well as its production operations in a radical way. To fit in the international market environment, the organization will also have to restructure its human resource so that it meets the needs that will arise from the change. In the long run, the whole organization will have to be changed completely and restructured. How does differentiation relate to operations management? Differentiation gives an organization a chance to access a unique market in the market, whether it is the local or the international market (Gerlrad, 2009). It allows the organization to access a market area where there is no competition or where there is less competition. Once a firm decides to use differentiation as its strategy, it will have to restructure its management functions as well as its operations to help the business to take advantage of differentiation. Differentiation brings new opportunities that the management should be prepared to take advantage of. To be able to take advantage of these new opportunities, the organization will have to come up with new ways that are not in the mainstream management theories. For instance, the organization will need to develop a plan on how it will take advantage of the unique opportunities that may be yet to be taken by other similar firms. The effect of this on the organization is that the organization will have to restructure its resources, both human and economic, to suit these needs. The second way differentiation will affect the organization is by bringing new challenges. Every new opportunity comes with a new challenge or even more new challenges. Differentiation will mean that the organization will have unique challenges that it will have to deal with in terms of management and in terms of operations management. For instance, the firm may have to deal with more challenging logistics operations, and the firm may have
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Macroeconomics - Essay Example The organization of petroleum exporting countries decides by them the cost per barrel of petroleum. The present price of petroleum in the world market has skyrocketed in the last few years because the OPEC members have agreed to limit the output per country. Since the agreed output has been reduced, the prices of petroleum per barrel have skyrocketed for the past few years. A study of the non Ã¢â¬â OPEC member nations, government and other academic researchers have shown that the non OPEC member nations may have equal sales with the OPEC member states in 2010. The worst case scenario is predicted by some scientists showing the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population will squander the limited petroleum oil supply. When the petroleum will dry up, then the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population will have a feeling that we are approaching the end of the world. Exxon has warned OPEC countries that the oil supply will not last forever. In some countries, solar energy research have been successful replacements for petroleum. Oil production can be subdividied between the OPEC member countries and the non OPEC. Countries have started looking for non-petroleum product replacements. An example is the electric power batteries. The solar powered homes and calculators are big successes. The introduction of the substitutes will help lower the the increasing barrel cost of petroleum (fossil) fuel. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"Many large-scale projects, such as shale processing and synfuels (e.g., coal to liquids), were begun in the early 1980s, but these were abandoned when the price of oil fell drastically in 1986. However, research has continued at a steady pace since that time. Even producing oil from tar sands is now a alternative major industry in Canada. Plants to produce liquids from natural gas are operational, and much larger plants are under construction. Ethanol production from sugar cane and corn is now done on an industrial scale. Thus,
Monday, September 23, 2019
Sports economic about Revenue Variation of four major league - Assignment Example In terms of the NHL, the NHL has the least along with the NBA. According to the result of the Standard Deviation of NHL is 20.89767077, the standard deviation of NBA is 45.53190116. The standard deviation of NFL is higher at 60.8456452 and the SD of the MLB is slightly lower than the MLBÃ¢â¬â¢s Standard deviation of 58.84399793. As shown in the graph above, there a consistent relationship, positively related with both curves indicating an upward relationship all together. There is a consistent relationship between the standard deviation of the revenue in these leagues form part A. This is because as the table of Revenue and the year assumes an upward trend, it shows an increasing standard deviation as well as an increasing inflation rate that compares to2012. Considering the major league income and expenses, the 2003-2012 data reveals on the team name, revenue of 2004 and for 2003 and to the revenues of 2004 as well. According to the chart of NFL, there is a steady flow of revenue until the inflationary and the revenue balances remain adjusted over time. The difference between the inflation adjusted outcomes measures the outcome of the periodÃ¢â¬â¢s inflation rate, thereby revealing the investments after removing the effects of the inflation. The unadjusted outcome relates to the increasing prices that offset demand. So it is safe to say that anytime during that period that the price of gas was above $2.60 in inflation adjusted terms it was expensive and whenever it was below that price it was cheap.Ã So obviously when it reached $4.00 a gallon in July 2008 it was expensive. And with the average for 2013 at $3.51 we are once again expensive. From the table of revenues for the NFL, it has a downward sloping pattern whereby the revenues reduce with time. This is an indication is reduced fanatics and it is not good for fan perspective. In business, when a competitor miss strategic success, then the business benefit. In game theory, it is
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Financial loss Essay This article is about crime and poverty and it also looks at the crimes that happen to the super rich and why a super rich person would risk everything for more money. There is no clear definition of what crime is but crime can be looked at in many different ways. In his book, what is a crime; Henry states that it has got multiple dimensions since there are the crimes that happen in the society and also those that happen nationally. Crime is harmful acts in the society which cause pain to their victims. (150) Poverty is a state of not being able to provide oneself with basic needs due to lack of money and resources. (Henry 150) It is a state where one feels deprived by circumstances of their most needs and not being able to live comfortably in their day to day activities due to lack of resources and other needs upon which are very basic. (Henry 150) Crime and poverty are intertwined in that due to lack of provision of needed basics poverty pushes people to crime. Crime According to the book by (Stuart Henry 2001), there are offenses which are committed and are contrary to the rules and laws set in the society. A crime is an offences which is considered immoral as well as illegal in the society. It is the deviation from the social norms as well as values. (154) Crime is a behavior which is unacceptable and it is done by its perpetrators by choice but it is also outlawed by the state. Crimes are also detrimental to the community. These acts of harm should be determined according to the circumstances in which they occurred. (Henry 158) Poverty (Henry Stuart 2001) states that this is the shortage of basic needs and common things which a person needs for the day to day survival such as food, water, shelter, clothing and which all determine ones quality of life. (135) It comes with lack of basics which are needed also to enhance a good life for someone. Good education needs to be supplemented with a good income and hence an eventual good life. Poverty suppresses comfort in life where one is not able to make ends meet. Poverty also deprives one services, goods and pleasures which are enjoyed by others who are not poor. In fact poor people are in a class of their own and those that have in abundant may take for granted some of the needs that the poor have. (Henry 136) Crime and poverty Crime and poverty are interrelated. It is enhanced by the social mobility of a country or a nation. If the social mobility of a country is stagnant then we have poverty and crime as we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any development whatsoever. (Henry 138) There are social ills of a society that make people poor like poor infrastructure lack of adequate housing , unemployment and others that make people in the society poor materially and spiritually. According to the book what is Crime (2001) for crime to be eliminated in the society then poverty has to be eliminated first. Crime is also cause by forces of the social breakdown. For one to be eliminated, however the other has to first be eliminated. (Henry 149) Lack of education leads to one not getting a good job and becomes poor, desperate and angry and also depressed. The idleness leads to the formation of gangs and thoughts of how to commit crime. This is primarily due to lack of opportunities. (Henry 155) According to (Henry Stuart 2001) money is very tempting to the poor and once offered it forced one to engage in any sort of crime in order to supplement income. Poverty makes people needy and hence exploitation where the poor are enticed into crime for money especially where there is no any government intervention. (174) Rich countries experience this since the cost of living keeps rising, while wages remain stagnant hence the gap between the rich and the poor widens and thus the poor become poorer while the rich get richer. Only the intervention of the government can arrest this by doing more for a nation on order for the people to be able to uplift themselves and consequently their standards of living. (Henry 172) Why a Super Rich Person Would Risk Everything For More Money According to Ferdinand Lundberg, the super rich people are the people who have a social class in the society and it consists of those with power as well as wealth. They are entrepreneurs, investors and that is where their income comes from and hence they benefit from capital gains. (69) They have a status in the society and they must keep up with the maintenance of this status. It is very expensive to maintain this status and hence they would risk everything for more money. Maintenance They prefer to live in expensive homes and they own many homes. The costs of maintaining these homes are very high since they come with luxury like pools, guest houses as well as tennis courts and hence they have to need loads of money for the maintenance of this. (Lundberg 68) Staff The super rich require a lot of staff who run their homes. This comes with their status since they are super rich they have people who run their homes and for them to maintain their status they need money for the upkeep to these staff. (Irvin 159) Cost In his book Irvin states that since the lifestyle of the super rich is luxurious they are not able to cut costs since they deal with high costs including the best and the most expensive things. They have to continue with this tend of only having the most expensive and they need more and more money for them to keep this status up. (163) Friends (Lundberg 76) states in his book that they are in a social class and their circle of friends is in their same status. The super rich would not risk not having more money as this would make their friends look down on them. For them to maintain the friends in their social class and also fro them to remain on top and maintain their status they need more money and they would risk anything for more money. (Lundberg 77) Financial loss In his book (Irvin 168) the super rich fear to suffer from financial loss since the same characteristics that give them the ability to achieving wealth are the same that may cause loss of financial freedom and this can cause devastation to the super rich so they would risk everything for more money. Pressure created by wealth There is much that is expected from the super rich. This makes it hard for them to just sit back and enjoy what they already have but they have to keep proving that they are still wealthy and so they would risk for more money. (Irvin 169) Pressure Created By Wealth According to (Irvin 150) there is much that is expected from the super rich. This makes it hard for them to just sit back and enjoy what they already have but they have to keep proving that they are still wealthy and so they would risk for more money. They are under a lot of pressure from the society to keep making more and more money and hence they keep doing more for more money as they look at the success of those around them as well as their friends in the same social status. (Irvin 152) Crimes That Happen To The Super Rich Blackmail (Lundberg 82) states that the super rich are protective of their lavish lifestyle and they also wish to maintain their image as clean and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like exposure in the society f their misgivings. One of the crime they suffer from is blackmail where someone threatens them with revealing some true information about them to the public, any other person that they may not wish for them to know their particular it of information or even to a business partner. (Lundberg 82) The said information could cause them embarrassment or could damage them socially if revealed and people wishing to blackmail the super rich know that they would be willing to meet any demand made upon the victim in order fro this information not to be revealed. Kidnapping According to the book the Rich and the Super Rich Lundberg states that this is a crime of taking someone away against their will to further another crime or for a ransom. The super rich suffer this crime where their family member, wife, husband, child is kidnapped and the kidnapers ask for a ransom of money from the family to secure the release of that person. The person is taken against his will and is falsely imprisoned until the said amount of money is paid to secure their release. (80) The super rich are known to be willing to do this as they have a lot of money and they can be able to honor the kidnappers demands in exchange of the false imprisonment of the person. (Lundberg 80) Credit Card Fraud In his book Super Rich Irvin feels that this is the information and data of the said super rich person is obtained and compromised this information on a credit card thus carrying out the transaction using the said card pausing as the real card holder. (146) Since the super rich are believed to have a lot of money this credit card is used to obtain goods or even to get funds from an account hence this is done fraudulently. (Irvin 147) Conclusion According to (Henry 136) Crime is the cause of harm and pain to the one that it is directed to while poverty is the state of not being able to provider for basic necessities. Crime and poverty are inter related and one cannot e eliminated before the other, since poverty leads people to lack good jobs and hence are not able to earn good money or provide for themselves ultimately. They therefore turn into crime due to stress and also as powerful people lure them into crime for money which they need desperately due to poverty. (Henry 136) The super rich suffer from crimes directed to them due to the strong believe that they have a lot of money. (Irvin 145) However the status of the super rich is luxurious and high and due to this social status it is important for them to maintain it and hence they would risk everything for more money. References:- Ferdinand Lundberg. The Rich and the Super rich. New York: Nelson Publishers, 1998. George Irvin. Super Rich. U. K: Polity Publishers, 2008. Stuart Henry. What is Crime. Washington: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2001.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison | Analysis The main protagonist of Ralph Ellison invisible man is not the only one who remains unseen as the novel unfolds. Another element also cloaked in invisibility follows our unknown character throughout the novel, changing both beat and tempo as the novel develops. Rather like the invisible man, the ongoing musical beat that runs through out the invisible manÃ¢â¬â¢ may not be visible yet it is very clearly felt and heard. It is the distinct incorporation of the inflowing musical beat that allows for an interloping of ideas based upon the visible, the invisible and the creative with the novel. The main theme within the Ã¢â¬Ëinvisible manÃ¢â¬â¢ is that of the more obvious theme of invisibility. Ellison explores through the use of music such as in the form of jazz the moments or experiences where invisibility takes control. Such breaks in visibility signify a chance for the protagonist to escape and break the mould of the what can be called Ã¢â¬Ëconstitutional visibilityÃ¢â¬â¢ allowing for the exploration of ones own identity and individuality. An individuality and identity that is not in any way restricted to what is generally accepted as visible. Such breaks that allow for such explorations to take place within the novel can be seen from the very beginning where in the prologue the protagonist recalls a certain incident: Once I saw a prize-fighter boxing a yokel. The fighter was swift and amazingly scientific. His body was one violent flow of rapid rhythmic action. He hit the yokel a hundred times while the yokel held up his arms in stunned surprise. But suddenly the yokel struck one blow . The smart money hit the canvas. The long shot got the nod. The yokel had simply stepped inside of the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of time. Through such a passage the reader is able to see that there is an alternative to the scientific approach. The yokel uses time and space in order to overpower the violence of science allowing creativity to achieve success. The restriction imposed by science is overcome through the ability to analyze and interpret a situation differently. In the instance it was the yokelÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to step into the time frame of the prize-fighter and thus provide for a different strategy towards victory. One that was able to unite creativity and originality. Rather like the same way the Ã¢â¬Ëinvisible manÃ¢â¬â¢ uses the music of Louis Armstrong with the combination of the reefer to discover a rather unconventional way of listening to ArmstrongÃ¢â¬â¢s music, thus in that way offering new ways of interpretation. Through the work of Victor Zuckerkandl, critic Nathaniel Mackey creates a rather interesting argument. Mackey states that Ã¢â¬Ëbecause music exists the tangible and visible can not be the whole of the given world. The intangible and invisible is itself a part of the world, something which we encounter, something to which we respondÃ¢â¬â¢ this statement can be seen running throughout the Ã¢â¬Ëinvisible manÃ¢â¬â¢. It is visible where the protagonist describes the dream like images evoked by the Louis ArmstrongÃ¢â¬â¢s music. These images run throughout the novel as seen at the very beginning by the incorporation of the prize-fighter and the yokel. These cuts and breaks in the narrative are essential to grounding this feeling and theme of invisibility whilst at the same time allowing Ellison to create improvisation through the use of language. Such technique is central to the very framework of the novel. The novel itself flows like a piece of music, with one incident happening right after the other. Each incident offers a break, a certain point in which the protagonist is given a certain moment in which his identity and individuality are either challenged or asserted. Even so Ellison does not rely on merely the invisible man to convey the W.Bell calls the portrayal of Ã¢â¬Ëthe historical quest of black American for identity in a society whose traditions simultaneously inspire and inhibit their impulse toward freedom and self-realizationÃ¢â¬â¢.Characters like Trueblood immerge. Although he has committed the sin of incest, trueblood does not allow his guilt to bind him. He turns towards the blues for guidance and repentance. One can even say that trueblood turns inward, looking to himself and to what defines him as an individual. W.Bell says that Ã¢â¬Ëthe courage and discipline that Trueblood discovers in the blues are essential values that the hero must learn by acknowledging his folk heritageÃ¢â¬â¢. The character of the junkman that the hero meets later in New York is also a reinforcement of the idea of the blues as being part of the cultural heritage of the black community. The idea of jazz and the blues and the power that they were able to distribute lies in their ability to parallel the then black life. Writing in Ã¢â¬ËLiving with musicÃ¢â¬â¢ Ellison is quoted as saying Ã¢â¬Ëlife could be harsh, loud and wrong if it wished, but they lived it fully and when they expressed their attitude toward the world it was with a fluid style that reduced the chaos of living to formÃ¢â¬â¢ This idea is reinforced through the meeting of the invisible man with the junkman who unlike Trueblood is not ultimately dismissed by the protagonist, Ã¢â¬Ëhe had me grinning despite myself. I liked his words through I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the answer. Id known the stuff from childhood, but had forgotten it; had learned it back of school.Ã¢â¬â¢.Where as the tainted past of Trueblood causes the invisible man to cast him aside the quizzical performance of the junkman allows for him to grasp at his own heritage. A notion reinforced through the simple act of buying a baked yam from the street vendor soon afterwards.Ã¢â¬â¢ I yam what I am Ã¢â¬â¢. It is these grasps at heritage and the acceptance of his own peoples strive for freedom that the invisible man must realise is the essential makeup of his quest for personal individuality and freedom. For they are, part of the make-up of who he is. What must also be noted is that throughout the novel and these incidents, the invisible man seems to have a certain type of plan that each time he strives to achieve. Yet as the novel progresses the plan changes. It is transformed from the mere wish of wanting to graduate and become as highly respected by the white community as Bledsoe. To wanting to work hard and be able to return to his school, to wanting assert himself within the brotherhood. To finally whilst in his hole, wanting only to assert his own humanity. In Ralph Ellison Ã¢â¬ËThe collected essays of Ralph Ellison. Ellison argues that it was the American dream that drove all Americans, ranging from different European nationalities to come to states and establish a better way of life. Even so, this was not the case for the then African slaves. Once freed these former slaves were now forced into finding a way of life that would enable them to be able to live within this European mix even though they were distinctively non-European. This, Ellison argues, resulted into an even more complex and thorough mix, eventually resulting in to the true beginnings of the American culture. Having no past in the art of Europe, they could use its elements and their inherited sense of style to improvise forms through which they could express their own unique sense of American experience. To Ellison this clearly was parallel to Jazz as it was the one form of art that could both explain and identify the American experience. Just like jazz uses improvisation, to piece together different instruments playing their own spontaneous versions of the chords that create a song, so did the many different cultures and cultural traditions come together to piece the American tradition. This piecing of the American culture and tradition is seen throughout the novel as the protagonists comes face to face with a variety of individuals, raging from different backgrounds that have all come together to form what is termed as Ã¢â¬ËAmericanÃ¢â¬â¢. Ellison comments in his Ã¢â¬ËShadow and ActÃ¢â¬â¢ that: Ã¢â¬ËThe Blues is an impulse to keep the painful details and episodes of a brutal experience alive in ones acting consciousness, to finger its jagged edge and to transcend it, not by consolation of philosophy but by squeezing from it a near-tragic, near comic lyricism. As a form the blues is an autobiographical chronicle of personal catastrophe expressed lyricallyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ In other words what Ellison is stating is that the blues offer another medium through which the philosophy of life is brought out. A philosophy as such that revolves through and around the complexities of improvisation. The crude or white-washed walls of science are completely disregarded by Ellison for a far more natural or artistic sense of being. Where ones path is life is defined by the tragedies and experiences he or she goes through, so that we are able to emerge triumphant in the end, whilst temporarily relying on the comforts of the present. This according to Ellison is the true essence of ones freedom of identity. Albert Murray further expands on this in Ã¢â¬ËThe hero and the bluesÃ¢â¬â¢ stating that the blues present us with a near ancient tragedy sort of existence where the hero is able to persist through life and through whatever ugliness that life presents to him through what Murray calls Ã¢â¬Ëa device for making the best of a bad situationÃ¢â¬â¢. Such a philosophy can be partly seen through the grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s words that the protagonist hears echoing through out the novel. His, the grandfathers, was a philosophy of yes-sing them. Such a philosophy may be on the surface regarded as a show of submission by the black man to the white mans dominance. Yet to the grandfather it was a way of survival. A way of like Murray says making the best out of a bad situation. In a world where the black community was regarded as lowly and inferior to the white community it is hard to see how a full on offensive would have helped in determine equality. In fact a full on offensive by the black man towards the white man would have left the black man poor, helpless and hungry. This show of submission is part of the grandfathers departing wisdom. A wisdom that urges our protagonist to fight in a defensive rather than offensive mode as this would be the fruitful result. This would be achieved by: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËLive with your head in the lions mouth, I want you to overcome Ã¢â¬Ëem with yess, undermineÃ¢â¬â¢em with grins, agreeÃ¢â¬â¢em to death and destruction, let Ã¢â¬Ëem swoller you till they vomit or bust openÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Although not completely understood by the main protagonist the grandfather had imparted a rather sphinx like riddle of an advice that although appeared to be that of subjection was actually a means of survival. By urging his grandson to say yes he in not urging him to bow down to the white man but rather assert himself. He is saying Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ knowing that he has the power to say Ã¢â¬ËnoÃ¢â¬â¢. His Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ is a show of dignity, a statement stating that he is agreeing as a free man, not as a slave, and that that Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ is a means of survival. The grandfather is not the only one to have picked up on this idea of having to say Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to survive. Bledsoe is another character who aims to Ã¢â¬ËyesesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ the entire white race to death. Yet the difference between Bledsoe and the grandfather is that Bledsoe does it through complete selfishness. This is the danger that as Bernard W.Bell says Ellison is ultimately implying. Ã ¢â¬Ë..the danger of compulsive individualism in a laissez-faire social system based on the conflicting principles of egalitarianism and racism.Ã¢â¬â¢ The heroÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s words are elusive and open to a wide scope of interpretation, yet for Ellison this was the exact embodiment of the meaning of jazz. Jazz as seen in EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬ËThe Charlie Christian StoryÃ¢â¬â¢ was regarded by Ellison as an art of individual assertion within and against the group. Each true jazz moment springs from a contest in which each artist challenges all the rest; each solo flight or improvisation, represents a definition of his identity: as individual, as member of the collectivity and as a link in the chain of tradition. Thus because jazz finds its very life in an endless improvisation upon traditional materials, the jazzman must lose his identity even as he finds it. Ellison last words echo the very theme of the Ã¢â¬Ëthe invisible manÃ¢â¬â¢ and the final act of the hero within the book. For in order to become visible EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s hero has had to become invisible. And although our invisible man seems to have only become invisible by the end of the novel, what is conveyed through the hero himself is that he has been in fact invisible from the very beginning. This invisibility was a direct product of the white man, invisibility evoke through the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s blind faith in the white mans word. Although the novels hero does as his grandfather says Ã¢â¬ËagreeÃ¢â¬â¢emÃ¢â¬â¢, he does not Ã¢â¬ËagreeÃ¢â¬â¢em to deathÃ¢â¬â¢. His Ã¢â¬ËyesesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ are ones that do not recognise his own individuality. The individuality of a black man who knows that although by agreeing the issue may not be confronted at least it is put out there. Another character in this novel that has the ability to say yes without being submissive is Mary. You have to take care of yourself, son. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let this Harlem git you. IÃ¢â¬â¢m in New York, but New York ainÃ¢â¬â¢t in me, understand what I mean? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t git corrupted. Mary has chosen to agree in order to survive. Yet her agreement does not stretch as far as corruption Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m in New York, but New York ainÃ¢â¬â¢t in me, understand what I mean? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t git corruptedÃ¢â¬â¢. Mary has created an ideology which allows for her survival, whilst at the same time ensuring her own honesty by not contradicting her own morals. These are the punches the yokel was able to find in order to outwit the prize fighter. These are the parallel examples to Ã¢â¬Ëthe smart money hit the canvas. The long shot got the nodÃ¢â¬â¢. The anonymous letter received by the protagonist later on in the novel is the first time the protagonist says Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ without being submissive. This time his Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ is accompanied by resentment and fear. Tarps actions of giving his chain link to the invisible man and his words Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢t think of it in terms of but two words, yes and no; but it signifies a heap moreÃ¢â¬â¢, offer another insight into the invisible mans grandfathers words. To be able to find the true meaning behind his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s word the invisible man chooses invisibility. This invisibility although offers a cloak of protection from the worlds corruption it, is unable to provide an escape from the workings of his own mind In going underground, I whipped it all except the mind, the mind. And the mind that has conceived a plan of living must never lose sight of the chaos against which that pattern was conceived. It is through the workings of the protagonists mind that the reader is told about his experiences and life. It is also through the workings of the same mind that allow the invisible man to come to conclusion. A conclusion which causes him to realise, that although he believed himself truly free he was never free from the workings of his mind. These processes or thoughts are the forces which lead him to realise that Gin, jazz and dreams were not enough. Books were not enough.Ã¢â¬ .By the end of the novel the invisible man has come to realise his grandfather words as part of his own social responsibility. It is at this point that the role of improvisation has diminished. The invisible man has come to relish his own social responsibility. A responsibility that embodies the individual yet at the same time re establishes the value of the community. A jazz player may improvise in a solo bringing out his own identity yet he must also work together with the rest of the group to bring out the larger part of the song. It is this larger part of the song, the bigger picture that allows for the protagonist to accept his social responsibilities. A bigger picture resulting not through, merely an understanding of improvisation but rather through the simple of act of forgiveness and love. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â¢winner take nothingÃ¢â¬â¢ that is the great truth of our country or of any country. Life is to be lived, not controlled; and humanity is won by continuing to play in the face of certain defeat. Our fate is to become one, and yet many.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Transition Elements And Coordination Compounds Biology Essay As we know, Manganese is found in the first row of transition metal with the electron configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s2. Besides that, Manganese has different type of oxidation states when it appears as a compound and the oxidation state is from Mn(-III) until Mn(VII). So, we know that the compounds of manganese range in the oxidation number have a different of 10 electrons. In the experiment 1, we prepare tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III), Mn(acac)3 by using manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate and potassium permanganate act as oxidation agent to oxidise manganese(II) chloride to acetylacetonemanganese(III). Manganese(III) acetylacetonate is an one- electron oxidant. Manganese(III) acetylacetonate is high spin. It has also a distorted octahedral structure. This distortion is due to the Jahn-Teller effect. (Absolute Astronomy, 2009). The structure of Manganese(III) acetylacetonate is shown as below:- (Source: Tcieurope.com) The equation is as follow:- MnCl2 + 4H2O Mn(H2O)4Cl2 Mn(H2O)4] Cl + 2HC5H7O2 + NaC2H3O2 Mn(C5H7O2)2 + NaCl + HC2H2O2 4Mn(C5H7O2)2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 5Mn(C5H7O2)3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O Furthermore, bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is also known as Vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2. As we know, it is a blue green complex. bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) has a vanadyl group, VO2+. The vanadyl group is bonded to 2 acetylacetonate anions and the structure of the compound is as follow:- This complex can be made from vanadium(IV) or vanadium(V). In our experiment, bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) was prepared from vanadium(V) oxide and the equation is as follow:- V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO(C5H7O2)2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2 (Absolute Astronomy, 2009) Besides that, both of the acetylacetonato (acac) groups of bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) are able to be exchanged with organic ligands having coordinating atoms of different potentialities. (Maurya, 2003) Both Manganese(III) acetylacetonate and bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) are bond with acetylacetonate which known as ligand. The precursor for acetylacetonate is acetylacetone with formula CÃ 5H8O2. However, acetylacetonate is an anion. It can bind to corresponding cation but it very hard to exist as a free ion in solution. In addition, Cobalt is a hard, gray metal. It has a proton number 27. Besided that, there are two types of cobalt ions namely Co2+ and Co3+. First, Co3+ ion is more weaker than the Co2+ ion. However, the complex ion formed with higher oxidation state is more stable. ( Ã °zmir Institute of Technology, n.d.). So that, Cobalt(III) complexes are kinetically inert. Co3+ can undergo a process known as ligand exchange reactions slowly which compared to Co2+ complexes. The cobalt(III) complexes are usually in octahedral shape. In the experiment, chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is being synthesized. The structure is as follow:- (Source: Chemicalbook.com) The complex is prepared by the oxidation of ammoniacal solution of cobalt(II) salts by using hydrogen peroxide. The formula is as follow:- Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 Ã¢â â [Co(NH3)5H20]3+ [Co(NH3)5H20]3+ + 3Cl- Ã¢â â [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 + H20 ( Ã °zmir Institute of Technology, n.d.) Materials and Methods : Experiment one 5g of MnCl2.4H20 1.3g of NaC2H3O2.3H2O NaC2H3O2.3H2O Dissolved in 200cm3 of distilled water. 21cm3 of 2HC5H7O2 slowly added 1g of KMnO4 Present of two-phase layer Solution A added in with stirring Dissolved in 50cm3 of distilled water. 13g of NaC2H3O2.3H2O Solution B added in Solution A Solution B Dissolved in 50cm3 of distilled water. Heated with 60oC for 30 minutes Complex washed with acetone Solid complex filtered by suction Resultant solution was cooled with ice-cold water Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Recrystallise Results : For experiment 1, from the equation below, I can get the theoretical mass of the Mn(acac)3 solid complex by : Mn(H2O)4] Cl + 2HC5H7O2 + NaC2H3O2 Mn(C5H7O2)2 + NaCl + HC2H2O2 4Mn(C5H7O2)2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 5Mn(C5H7O2)3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O From the equation, we know that 1 mol of Mn(H2O)4] Cl = 1 mol of Mn(C5H7O2)2. So, 5 g of Mn(H2O)4] Cl = 0.0308 mol is also = 0.0308 mol of Mn(C5H7O2)2. From the second equation, 4 mol of Mn(C5H7O2)2 = 5 mol of Mn(acac)3 0.0308 mol of Mn(C5H7O2)2 = 0.0385 mol. Of Mn(acac)3 So, theoretical weight of Mn(acac)3 = 0.0385 mol X 252.938 g/mol theoretical weight of Mn(acac)3 = 9.7381 g The following shows the method to get our experimental weight: Weight of Sample tube 14. 8180 g Weight of Sample tube + solid complex , Mn(acac)3 18.7785 g So, the experimental weight of Mn(acac)3complexes were 3.9605 g Percentage yield of Mn(acac)3complexes we get was = 3.9605 g / 9.7381 g X 100 % = 40.67 % Next, Magnetic moment of Mn(acac)3complexes were calculated as follow : m = 0.9278g- 0.8193g = 0.1085g Ro= -33 L = 2.4cm R= 1165 (paramagnetic) CBal = 1 X(g) = [CBal X L X (R-Ro) ] / 109 X m X(g) of Mn(acac)3complexes = 2.65 X 10-5 So, Mn(acac)3complexes are paramagnetic FTIR Interpretation of IR spectrum for complexes will be written in discussion. For experiment 2, from the equation below, I can get the theoretical mass of the [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 solid complex by : Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 Ã¢â â [Co(NH3)5H20]3+ [Co(NH3)5H20]3+ + 3Cl- Ã¢â â [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 + H20 From the above equation, 1 mol of Co2+ = 1 mol of [Co(NH3)5H2O]3+ 12g of Co2+ = 0.0504 mol So 0.0504 mol of [Co(NH3)5H20]3+= 0.0504 mol of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 Theoretical weight of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 solid complexes = 0.0504 mol X 250.433 g/mol = 12.6218 g The following shows the method to get our experimental weight: Weight of Sample tube 14. 9285 g Weight of Sample tube + solid complex , 22.3723 g So, the experimental weight of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 solid complexes = 7.4438 g Percentage yield of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2complexes = 7.4438 g / 12.6218 g X 100 % = 58.98 % Next, Magnetic moment of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2complexes were calculated as follow : m = 0.9264g- 0.8207g = 0.1057g Ro= -36 L = 2.1cm R= -41 (dimagnetic) CBal = 1 X(g) = [CBal X L X (R-Ro) ] / 109 X m X(g) of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2complexes = -9.9338 X 10-8 So, [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2complexes are diamagnetic FTIR For experiment 3, from the equation below, I can get the theoretical mass of the [Vo(acac)2(H2O)] solid complex by : V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO(C5H7O2)2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2 From the above equation, 1 mol of V2O5 = 2 mol of VOSO4 2g 0f V2O5 = 0.011 mol = 0.022 mol of VOSO4 2 mol of VOSO4 = 2 mol of VO(C5H7O2)2 Theoretical weight of VO(C5H7O2)2= 0.022 mol X 264.94 g/mol = 5.8287 g The following shows the method to get our experimental weight: Weight of Sample tube 14.8445 g Weight of Sample tube + solid complex , 18.5818 g So, the experimental weight of VO(C5H7O2)2= 3.7373 g Percentage yield of VO(C5H7O2)2= 3.7373 g / 5.8287 g X 100% = 64.12% Next, Magnetic moment of impure VO(C5H7O2)2 complexes were calculated as follow : m = 0.8880g 0.8244 g = 0.0636g Ro= -34 L = 2.5cm R= 72 (paramagnetic) CBal = 1 X(g) = [CBal X L X (R-Ro) ] / 109 X m X(g) of impure VO(C5H7O2)2complexes = 4.17 X 10-6 So, VO(C5H7O2)2complexes are paramagnetic Magnetic moment of pure VO(C5H7O2)2 complexes were calculated as follow : m = 0.8947g -0.8211 = 0.0736g Ro= -33 L = 2.3cm R= 144 (paramagnetic) CBal = 1 X(g) of pure VO(C5H7O2)2complexes = 5.53 X 10-6 FTIR Interpretation of IR spectrum for complexes will be written in discussion. Impure VO(C5H7O2)2 Pure VO(C5H7O2)2 Discussion : Interpretation of IR spectrum for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 2921.1 2959.7 -relative intensity : weak CH stretching of CH3 1593.9 1508.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C=CH) deformation 1387.2 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3)- symmetric C-H deformation 1253.5 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C-CH3) stretching 1016.8 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) out-of plane bending 923.2 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching 777.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C-H)deformation 678.1 -relative intensity : medium/ strong -(C-CH3)stretching,(O=C-CH3) deformation -(Mn-O) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond 460.1 relative intensity : weak (C=C) stretching,(C-CH3) stretching -(Mn-O) stretching that also indicatesmetal-ligand bond Interpretation of IR spectrum for chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride: Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 3258.0 -relative intensity : strong NH3stretch 1576.2 -relative intensity : medium -degenerate asymmetric NH3stretching 1307.8 -relative intensity : strong -symmetric NH3angle deformation 844.9 -relative intensity : strong -NH3rocking 487.6 -(Co-Cl) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond Interpretation of IR spectrum for impure bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1556.8 1521.0 -relative intensity : medium (C=O) stretching -( C=C),(C=CH) stretching 1418.7 -relative intensity : medium -(CH3) deformation 1374.0 1357.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C=O) stretching -(CH3) deformation mode 1286.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C=C) stretching 998.2 -relative intensity : strong and sharp -stretching of V=O bond -it also indicates the metal-ligand bond. 1018.6 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) rocking 936.1 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching -(C=O) stretching 798.6 -relative intensity : medium -(C-H) out-of-plane bending 685.9 657.2 -relative intensity : medium/ weak -(ring) deformation out-of-plane bending for: 609.2 -(ring) deformation Interpretation of IR spectrum for pure bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1563.0 1520.0 -relative intensity : medium (C=O) stretching -( C=C),(C=CH) stretching 1499.6 -relative intensity : medium -(CH3) deformation 1380.0 1349.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C=O) stretching -(CH3) deformation mode 1288.3 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C=C) stretching 995.0 -relative intensity : strong and sharp -stretching of V=O bond -it also indicates the metal-ligand bond. 1018.2 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) rocking 935.7 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching -(C=O) stretching 798.8 798.0 -relative intensity : medium -(C-H) out-of-plane bending 686.0 -relative intensity : medium/ weak -(ring) deformation out-of-plane bending for: 609.7 -(ring) deformation FTIR is known as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This FTIR can be used to identify different types of chemical bond which is either organic compound or inorganic compound. So no two different compounds will have same spectrum. However, FTIR may cause destructive to our sample compare to magnetic susceptibility which is non-destructive. Besides that, magnetic susceptibility can be group by paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic. Paramagnetic substance is those attracted by strong magnetic field but those repelled by magnetic field are diamagnetic substances. Besides that, we can also confirm the shape by using magnetic susceptibility. The Cobalt ion to form Chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride has 6 electron in d orbital. According to crystal field theory, if the complex is in octahedral shape, the electron can be arranged like below:- Low-spin high-spin eg eg t2g t2g If the complex is in tetrahedral shape, the electron are arranged as below:- t2g eg Magnetic Susceptibility for chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is -9.9338 X 10-8 and it is diamagnetic. Only the low-spin octahedral shape shows diamagnetic properties, so the shape of chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is octahedral. Furthermore, for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III), the Mn3+ ion has 4 electron in d orbital, and the arrangement in octahedral shape will as follows:- Low-spin High-spin eg eg t2g t2g For the arrangement in tetrahedral shape, the electrons are arranged as below:- t2g eg Magnetic Susceptibility for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is 2.65 X 10-5 and it is paramagnetic. So the shape of tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is octahedral. However we cannot determine whether is low-spin or high-spin in this situation because we are not calculating the pairing energy for the complex. In addition, there is only one electron in d orbital for vanadium ion of bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV). Magnetic susceptibility for it is 4.17 X 10-6 and it is paramagnetic. The shape is octahedral and the arrangement of electron is as follow:- eg t2g Acetylacetonate is delocalized and formed resonance structure as follow : The structure of Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 is as follow : The structure of [VO(ACAC)2] is as follow : Moreover, oxovanadium complexes act as insulin mimetics, nucleolytic and anticancer. To recognize insulin- mimetic complexes, a simple and fast in-vitro assay is developed. Besides that, an accurate assessment of the cells taken up of glucose, in-vitro assay with Ehrlich can be used. The oxovanadium complexes can cleave DNA without the present of hydrogen peroxide. Then, its nucleolytic efficiency is also greater but it is affected by the choice of buffer and pH. The oxovanadium complexes is also an anticancer agent against human ovarian cancer. Actually, I have acquired a lot of new knowledge among these three experiments. First, experiment one and two are easier to carry out compared to experiment three. This is because experiment one and two involved oxidation which Mn2+ was oxidized to Mn3+ ; Co2+ was oxidized to Co3+. Whereas experiment 3 involved reduction which reduced VO5+ to VO4+. At the beginning of each experiments, we heated up the sample in open air. It is easier to oxidize the compound than reduce the compound in the presence of oxygen. So, we need more time to heated the V2O5. During the first time of experiment three, I failed to get a blue color solid powder. This is because I heated the sample in the open air and I failed to control the heater. So, after the filtration process, I got a white solid powder. Therefore, I learnt from the mistake and during the second time I used reflux method. This time I can control the heating process well. The ethanol was not evaporated much. After filtration, I got quite a lot of blue solid powder. So, I knew that, for reduction process, we cannot heat the sample too quickly and heat too long. If we heated too long, most of the product will evaporate. Next, from the FTIR spectrum, I can observe that the spectrum from the first and third experiment are quite similar. This is because, the peak from the spectrum are mostly from the acetylacetonato (acac). However, spectrum from experiment two is quite different from other experiment because mostly the peaks come from Cl compared to other experiments. The percentage yield of the complexes from all the three experiment that I have calculate out was not so high. This is maybe due to the washing of the product with acetone, some of the product was dissolved and washed away. However, there are other factors which cause problem to our results. First, most of the heating plate we used cannot function well. I changed many heating plate during the experiment. Next, we have kept our half way done sample for more than 7 days. The results may not be so accurate anymore. Another factor maybe due to the volume and amount of the sample and other material we measure are not accurate. Our product may contain some impurities. However, some of the precaution was taken during the experiment. In these experiments, some of the chemical was corrosive and poisonous such as concentrated HCl and H2SO4. So, we poured the chemical carefully in the fume board. Next, before using any instrument, we read through the manual to understand the steps to function the magnetic susceptibility balance. We also taken down some important steps to function the FTIR spectrophotometer. I have asked some help from lab assistant on where to get the material for experiment. Conclusion : The percentage yield for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is 40.67%, chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is 58.98% and (acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is 64.12%. For tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III), the peak for two Mn-O bond are at the region approximately 678.1 cm-1 and 458.3 cm-1. For chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride, the peak for Co-N bond is at 669.2 cm-1 while Co-Cl bond is at 486.2 cm-1. For bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV), the peak for V=O bond is at 997.4 cm-1 region. Magnetic Susceptibility for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is 2.65 x 10-5 and it is paramagnetic. Besides, Magnetic Susceptibility for chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is -9.93x 10-8 and is diamagnetic. For bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV), magnetic susceptibility for impure complex and pure complex are 4.17X 10-6 and 5.53X 10-6 respectively. They are paramagnetic.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
In a small village consumed by poverty a man in a business suit shows up. He goes from family to family offering to buy children for a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of pay. He gets to one family with a young girl whose father sells her to feed his addiction for heroine. Scared and confused the girl is now forced into a brothel, sexually pleasing more than 20 men a day. Nearly five years later she is rescued only to lose her life to AIDS from unprotected sex. The human trafficking industry in Thailand has long been overlooked both internally and externally. Corruption, greed, foreign relations, economic pressure, and overall demand have fueled the trafficking industry in Thailand. Until the world and the Thai government make serious changes to the way they handle the situation in Thailand, the victims of trafficking will continue to experience similar atrocities. During Vietnam War, America had an agreement with Thailand that allowed them to establish a rest and relaxation base there. The base and soldiers stationed there caused the economy to thrive through tourism however once the war was over, the U.S. no longer needed the base so they left Thailand. The Thai economy needed a way to continue to sustain itself, so it began to prostitute women in their country to create a desirable location for tourism again. This prostitution business gained attraction around the world, and the Thai economy was once again sustaining itself. As time passed it became apparent that trafficking women from nearby impoverished countries would be easier than using the local women. Thailand began establishing itself as one of the biggest prostitution industries and soon became known as Ã¢â¬Å"AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s BrothelÃ¢â¬ . Women and children that are trafficked into Thailand live hor... ...x Slavery." NewsMax.com: America's News Page - News Archives. 21 Apr. 2001. Web. 27 Jan. 2010. . Northcutt, Casey. "Education may prevent human trafficking." The Murray State News. 21 Feb. 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2010. . Perrin, Andrew. "Thai families partners in child sex trade / Border area's products are drugs and daughters." San Francisco Bay Area News, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds: SFGate. 6 Feb. 2002. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. . "Thailand: Fighting Child Trafficking | World in Progress | Deutsche Welle | 01.09.2007." Home | Deutsche Welle. Web. 28 Jan. 2010. .
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Superbugs: Overcoming the Resistance Bio 1M03 PBL Project March 11, 2014 This report has been edited and approved by all contributing group members before submission. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has presented many problems in our society, including an increased chance of fatality due to infections that could have otherwise been treated with success. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, but overexposure to these drugs give the bacteria more opportunities to mutate, forming resistant strains. Through natural selection, those few mutated bacteria are able to survive treatments of antibiotics and then pass on their genes to other bacterial cells through lateral gene transfer (Zhaxybayeva, 2011). Once resistance builds in one patient, it is possible for the strain to be transmitted to others through improper hygiene and failure to isolate patients in hospitals. Resistance arises from mutations that are not under the control of humans, but the evolution of bacteria has been sped along by the overexposure of antibiotics to both people and animals. The number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in an area is closely related to the frequency that antibiotics that are prescribed (Todar, 2012). Patients often unnecessarily demand antibiotics to treat common colds or simple illnesses that are not caused by bacteria. Instead, these infections are caused by viruses which, unlike bacteria, are unaffected by antibiotics. Incorrect diagnosis can also lead patients to using unnecessary antibiotics, which can sometimes be even more dangerous than otherwise left untreated. Besides the fact that antibiotics kill off beneficial bacteria in the intestines, misuse of antibiotics provides an opportunity ... ... antibiotic resistance has quickly become an increasing concern in recent times due to the growing use of antibiotics. To combat this problem, we propose that healthy intestinal floras be maintained after antibiotic resistance using fecal bacteriotherapy, and that processes of lateral gene transfer be disrupted before antibiotic resistance through the use of copper surfaces and after antibiotic resistance through synthesized CSPs. Continuing research in these solutions as well as implementing these strategies into mainstream medicine will certainly reduce the frequency of antibiotic resistance along with incidences of serious disease outbreaks in hospitals. With a better understanding of the causes of antibiotic resistance and the role that patients and doctors play in these causes, it is time to move forward and attempt to eradicate this problem once and for all.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Introduction The Randolph Corporation is a multidivisional producer of electric sanders, sandpaper, industrial grinders and sharpeners, and coated ceramics. The Corporation also has a real estate development division. The diverse product lines of the company divide the corporation into four divisions, namely, real estate, ceramic coatings, equipment manufacturing and home products. The Randolph Corporation Stock performed below expectations recently, when compared to other player in the industry. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main problem is believed to lie in the financial planning processes and in the risk consideration.To tackle these problems the assistant to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s vice president suggests a target capital structure of 45% debt in every division and differing hurdle rated for low, average, and high risk projects. This paper critically reviews the different suggested measures and finally proposes measures that should be taken to improve the performance of the Randolph Corporatio n. Divisional Hurdle Rates To estimate the hurdle rates for every division of the Randolph Corporation that weighted average cost of capital (WACC) have to be calculated for every division. To apply the formula of the WACC the costs of equity have to be known.The cost of equity can be determined through the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The results for every divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s equity cost and the computation of the hurdle rates can be seen in the Appendix. The divisions with higher risk have higher weighted average cost of capital. WACC/Hurdle Rate Real Estate9. 19% Ceramic Coatings10. 24% Equipment Manufacturing10. 55% Home Products9. 34% Fig. 1: Hurdle rate per division To account for different levels of risks between the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s projects the assistant of the vice president suggested an inclusion of different levels of risk within every divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s capital budgeting procedure.Managers in the divisions are asked to classify projects as high, average or low risk. Rather risky projects will hereafter be evaluated at a hurdle rate of 1. 2 multiplied by the divisional rate, projects of average risk are to be evaluated at just the divisional rate while low risk projects have a hurdle rate of 0. 9 multiplied by the divisional rate. This produced the following rates, as shown in figure 2. WACC/Hurdle Rate Low RiskAverage RiskHigh Risk Real Estate8. 27%9. 19%11. 02% Ceramic Coatings9. 22%10. 24%12. 29% Equipment Manufacturing9. 49%10. 55%12. 66% Home Products8. 0%9. 34%11. 20% Fig. 2: Hurdle rate per division and risk level At this time the risk adjustment factors discussed here must be reviewed with a critical eye. Accoring to Brigham & Daves (2007), there is no theory that could serve as a foundation of justification for the size these risk-adjustment factors. The authors say that there is no specific value that can be assigned to accurately adjust for the risk and therefore determine higher or lower discount rates. Corporate Beta & Cost of Capi tal Taking a weighted average of the four divisional betas gives the overall corporate beta.The corporate beta is therefore affected by changes of the divisional weights and by changes of the individual beta of the particular divisions. The two following scenarios will illustrate this issue. The Corporate beta increases if the ceramic coating division had a large number of projects with returns exceeding the risk adjusted hurdle rates. When the growth rate of the coatings division surpasses the overall corporate growth rate the divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s assets and thereby its weight will increase moving the corporate beta closer to the beta of the ceramic coatings division.Since the cost of equity rise with increases of beta, the larger corporate beta should also raise the corporate cost of capital (WACC). How strong such changes are to be is however determined by capital structure and weights on other departments. The corporate beta also increases when the equipment manufacturing division makes heavy investments in projects that are deemed to be more risky than average. Investments in risky projects in the division would raise the divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s beta and could then eventually also increase the overall corporate beta, which lets the overall cost of capital rise.It can take some time for the effects of the risky investments to really be visible in the corporate beta. When this happens depends on the analysis frequencies and on the methods that are employed for beta estimation. It can take time until analysts notice the change in the corporate risk profile because they first need to see the higher volatility of returns of the company. Capital Structure Mrs Barbara Kravitz states to use the corporate target capital structure of 45 percent debt for each division.Hence, this unique capital structure implies not to account for different application and management in the several divisions. Moreover, some divisions can be threatened not being competitive in their market. T his is, because divisions operate in diverse markets with differing market conditions. So the risks are not assigned to the divisions of the company but to the corporate average. For instance, low-risk divisions have to accept higher a higher cost of capital, whereby high-risk divisions have to pay less for their risk relative to the market, i. . this approach does not account for risk-adjusted cost of capital. Considering another approach, divisions can issue their own debt, but the corporation guarantees the divisional debt. It is not a great difference to the Kravitz-approach. When the corporation guarantees the divisional debt, this debt can be supposed as to Ã¢â¬Å"as-ifÃ¢â¬ -debt, i. e. divisional debt will be issued as if it would be issued by the whole corporation. Therefore, the capital structure is not as equal as with the above mentioned approach, but quite similar.There is no big difference in the cost of capital for each division, because they do not bear the risk. Co st of capital depends on who bears the risk. Hence, the divisionsÃ¢â¬â¢ costs of capital are very close to each other. But when each division is handled as an own and independent organization that rises its own debt, the cost of capital only depends on this special risk of the underlying division. In this case the divisions have the opportunity to achieve the optimal capital structure based on the risk of the division. This risk can be called as stand-alone risk and the beta coefficient can easily be calculated.Concerning stand-alone risk, investors may have a higher risk relative to the approach with corporate guarantees, but the division has to pay a higher WACC as well. Beta Value Ã¢â¬â Market Risk Analysis The outcome of beta estimation is always the historical beta, which offers no future perspective for sure. That is because past events included in the historical beta must not occur in the future. According to Brigham & Daves (2007), beta usually can be estimated through the relationship of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock returns and market returns.Difficulties in estimating beta can arise, if there are differing holding periods and variations in the number of observations included in the estimation. Another problem is the multitude of indexes that represent the similar or quite the same stocks, for example S&P 500 or Wilshire 5000. Despite these indexes are highly correlated, beta estimations can differ. Some modifications of the beta coefficient are the adjusted beta and the fundamental beta. The former tries to transform the historical beta closer to an average beta of 1. 0.The latter seeks to incorporate information concerning the company to achieve a better estimate for beta. Moreover, beta values out of less-developed financial markets are not good estimates and therefore partly biased. Problems in estimating beta for divisions of a corporations could arise if the divisions are too small and therefore can be compared with less-developed financial marke ts. Hence, beta coefficients could be biased (Brigham & Daves, 2007). Thus we can suggest that beta values are very inconsistent and partly biased. Beta Value Ã¢â¬â Total Risk AnalysisFirst, the beta value is known as an estimation for the market risk a corporation is faced to. Therefore, it is difficult to find beta for the total risk of the corporation. Total risk is actually measured by the variance or the standard deviation, respectively. So, if one tries to find beta for total risk, it is also possible to calculate the WACC or the hurdle rates for each division, respectively, because there is a high correlation between divisional betas and projectÃ¢â¬â¢s betas. The latter can be estimated through a Monte Carlo analysis.The resulting estimates for the variance of the projects can be included in the following formula for beta: ? _i=(? _i/? _M )*? _iM So one gets different beta values for different projects, with what it is possible to calculate the hurdle rates in two steps. First step is to insert the beta in the CAPM to receive the expected return, and second, to calculate the WACC with the new return (Brigham & Daves, 2007). Compensation Plan RandolphÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation plan cannot work out very well, because the corporation issues a uniform debt ratio in its capital structure.Therefore, some divisions cannot compete with other business rivals if there are no opportunities to raise the debt ratio for the division. That is, divisional manager are not able to compete with the market and therefore cannot create a high growth in sales or earnings. As the reaction of Debra Brown from the Real Estate Division has shown, this division faces troubles if the debt ratio of 45 percent will be implemented to the corporation. The problem is the unique capital structure for the whole corporation that is not consistent with the incentive-based compensation plan.Some divisions that do not need a high debt ratio to compete with the market could have a benefit as well as divisional managers will have an advantage to earn more relative to other divisions. So, Randolph should change its capital budgeting procedure in order to enable divisional managers the issuing of debt on their own. With this approach, some interdependences in the corporation would disappear and the divisional managers could concentrate on their division, while not being limited in doing their job. Additional to that, Randolph should also adjust its compensation plan, because divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s ROE strongly varies among the divisions.That is, because with the new implemented approach in capital budgeting the divisions face differing target capital structures. Thus, they also have differing opportunities to achieve a high or a low ROE. This incentive could be substituted by return on investment (ROI). Divisional managers now have a higher incentive to seek the goals given by the senior management. Conclusion To come to an end, one can see how differing hurdle rates and diffic ulties in estimating beta coefficient can lead to problems in capital budgeting as well as disparities in the compensation.Moreover, also the accounting for different risks can influence the calculations for WACC and therefore the hurdle rates. Some approaches cannot be calculated and are based on individual judgments (high/low risk hurdle rates). Finally, an appropriate incentive-based compensation plan can increase managerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation on the one hand, and project management or divisional management, respectively, on the other hand. ? Reference List Bringham, E. , & Daves, P. (2007). Intermediate Financial Management. 9th Edition, Thomson South-Western. Mason Ohio Divisional Hurdle Rates. (1994). Randolph Corporation . The Dryden Press.
Monday, September 16, 2019
I am Dina Maqdadi, an eager student with hopes of being accepted in a law school, a mother to a fifteen month old boy and currently undergoing a high risk pregnancy due on the first of January. As of now, I am in one of the most uncomfortable situations a student could be in: The dilemma of being a young mother.I am also in one of the most challenging scenarios a mother could be in: The challenge of being a single parent.Being a single mother is truly a brave task set for me especially because I have many goals in life. I must learn to set aside personal interests. I must learn to be responsible for my welfare and be even more responsible for the welfare of others, my children.I have learned these things. I have learned to look at things positively and I have learned to do everything to make my goals attainable.I am a real estate agent with backgrounds in engineering and real estate. I have been exposed to different people with different stories. I have learned that though I am alrea dy a mother, I should not let my hopes die. Thus, I have made a decision to study law particularly intellectual property law.I am a mother and I should be good at making the right decisions for the good of my children. They serve as my inspiration to fulfill these dreams because by doing such, I am not only securing a bright future for myself but also of my children.As new opportunities decrease due to the high qualifications, it is hard for me, a single parent, to provide the necessities of my children. It is in this light that I request that you consider my admission to your law school to be competent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. By letting me study in your law school, you open to me a future that I can shape.I am not saying these for you to take pity on me I sat these because it is the truth. By accepting me, you have not only made a difference in my life but also to my children as well. By considering me as a student you will help me and my children make our dreams into realities.Th ank you and Godbless
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ralph and JackÃ¢â¬â¢s Conflict between Good and Evil in Lord of the Flies Over the ages, human behavior has shown that purity of thought leads to a similar action and ultimately to an outcome that is consistent with the original thought. Conversely, the history of man is tainted with his inherent lust for power and greed causing great conflict. In Lord of the Flies by William Golding, the author contrasts the moral thoughts and deeds of his flawed hero Ralph to the self gratifying motives and actions of his adversary Jack.The ebb and flow of good versus evil on the island is driven by the waves of positive and negative thoughts in the minds of the two main characters. Ralph and JackÃ¢â¬â¢s continuous struggle of good versus evil is not only between the two of them, but is within their own minds as well. Jack shows his inclination towards selfishness and violence while Ralph keeps a caring and positive mind towards the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s survival.The boys have a meeting on the top of the mountain to discuss what to do next concerning their survival, which gives jack the opportunity to bring up hunting: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢It broke away-Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËBefore I could kill it- but- next time! Ã¢â¬â¢ Jack slammed his knife into a trunk and looked round challenginglyÃ¢â¬ (31). Already Jack begins to reveal his aggressive and violent nature. Jack has the opinion that being dominant and seen as powerful is more important to his own survival, while Ralph thinks about the survival of the group as a whole. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s hunting is more about a selfish need than about providing for others.During the first hunt, Jack goes to satisfy his craving for meat and power: Ã¢â¬Å"He swung his right arm and hurled the spear with all his strength. From the pig-run came the quick, hard patter of hoofs, a castanet sound, seductive, maddening- the promise of meatÃ¢â¬ (49). JackÃ¢â¬â¢s hunt for meat has become an obsessive search for power and a way to demonstrate his strength to the boys. He believes that catching and killing a pig and bringing it back for the others is the ultimate way to show that he is dominant and better than them.Jack is now consciously embodying his evil thoughts into his physical appearance. After realizing his hunting methods are not adequate, Jack paints his face into a mask in order to hunt more successfully: Ã¢â¬Å"Jack planned his new face. He made one cheek and one eye-socket white, then rubbed red over the other half of his face and slashed a black bar of charcoal across from right ear to left jawÃ¢â¬ (66). He is consciously using the colours black and red to demonstrate the darkness and thirst for blood inside of him. Jack also shows his evil andÃ anger in the way he aggressively slashes the charcoal onto his face.RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s deeper level of thinking leads him to take positive action towards improving conditions on the island. Ralph walks along the beach and come to realization just how badly things have deteriorated on the island: Ã¢â¬Å"With a convulsion of the mind, Ralph discovered dirt and decay; understood how much he disliked perpetually flicking the tangled hair out of his eyes, and at last, when the sun was gone, rolling noisily to rest among dry leavesÃ¢â¬ (82).RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, while not entirely good, have helped him to realize how bad the actually situation is on the island and what he needs to do to stop the situation from getting worse. RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s world of order is pitted against JackÃ¢â¬â¢s world of chaos. At the meeting, Ralph tries to reestablish the rules and Jack is openly challenging his authority: Ã¢â¬Å"Ralph summoned his wits. Ã¢â¬ËBecause the rules are the only thing weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got! Ã¢â¬â¢ But Jack was shouting against him. Ã¢â¬ËBullocks to the rules! WeÃ¢â¬â¢re strong- we hunt! If thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a beast, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll hunt it down!WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll close in and beat and beat and beat- ! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (99) Ralph expresses his good thoughts in a way to keep justice and order on the island, while Jack tries to destroy any trace of this with thoughts of rebellion and power over RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s law. When Ralph realized that he cannot win, he gives into the bad thoughts that consume the island. Ralph is the last one left who still has a sense of order and is being hunted by the others for not agreeing with their ways: Ã¢â¬Å"But then the fatal unreasoning knowledge came to him again.The breaking of the conch and the deaths of Piggy and Simon lay over the island like a vapour. These painted savages would go further and furtherÃ¢â¬ (204). He experiences bad thoughts regarding his survival and develops a sense of hopelessness and futility. Ralph, slowly losing his own sanity and at the loss of Piggy and Simon there to induce good thoughts, is left to hide and attack the others for his own survival. Ralph is entirely overwhelmed by the thoughts of good and evil. He flees from the savages onto the beach where he finds, standing before hi m, a naval officer with a ship at his back.Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and the fall though the air of the true, wise friend called PiggyÃ¢â¬ (225). All of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts crash down on him at this moment and he is overwhelmed by the truth of manÃ¢â¬â¢s inner evil and by the death of his loyal and good friend Piggy. The conflict between the two characters, Ralph and Jack, is underlined by the good and evil thought patters that directly lead to the actions they each take. While good thoughts bear good fruit and bad thoughts bear bad fruit, the potential for good and evil lies within all of mankind.